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Robot Technology
임베디드시스템으로서의 지능형로봇, 로봇으로서의 임베디드시스템
  [ 입력 : 2010-07-05 오후 2:44:35 | 지면발행 : 2010년 7월호 48쪽 ]
같은 주제의 기사[Robot Technology]
로봇 개발자가 바라보는 임베디드 세상[2010년 07월호]
임베디드시스템으로서의 지능형로봇, 로봇으로서의 임베디드시스템[2010년 07월호]

  관련분야 ▶ 로봇  

굴 : 이상무 수석연구원 / 지능형로봇연구부, KITECH (한국생산기술연구원)

지능형 로봇이란

 지능형 로봇은 센서를 이용하여 외부환경을 인식하고, 환경 모델을 이용하여 스스로 상황을 판단하고 자율적으로 동작(이동 및 조작)하는 장치이다. 기존 제조업용 로봇도 정보수집(Sensing)-동작계획(Planning)-동작실행(Action)으로 구성되어 있으나, 기존 단순 제조공정과는 비교할 수 없을 정도로 복잡하고 가변적인 동작 환경에서 임무를 완수해야 할 지능형 로봇은 시청각 및 촉각을 비롯한 다양한 환경 센서 정보를 융합하여 상황의 복잡도와 가변성을 해결하기 위한 인공 지능 기술을 적극적으로 활용한다.
 
지능형 로봇의 적용 분야는 폭 넓고 다양하며, 이들은 크게 다음의 세 가지로 구분된다.

·개인서비스용 : 홈서비스, 실버라이프, 여가지원, 교육 등
·전문서비스용 : 공공서비스, 의료, 사회안전,국방, 농수산업, 광업,건설, 우주,해양,원자력
·제조업용 : 자동차,전자제품,디스플레이,반도체 제조, 바이오 신약, 초소형·초정밀 제조



로봇산업 동향

기존 제조업용 로봇산업 선두국인 미국, 일본, 유럽 및 한국은 기술로드맵 또는 장기 개발 계획을 발표하면서 지능형 로봇산업의 기술과 산업을 선도하고 있다. 특히 미국의 경우는 의료와 국방에서 성공 사업 모델을 창출하고 있다.



국내에서는 현재 로봇시장이 있거나 미래 시장이 성장할 것으로 전망되는 5개 로봇제품군 (5대 스타브랜드)을 선정하고 로봇을 제품화하는 기술을 개발하고 있으며, 서비스 로봇을 산업화하는데 필수적인 4개 원천기술과 플랫폼을 개발하고 있다.

· 스타브랜드 : 청정생산용 첨단제조로보시스템, 창의적 에듀테인먼트로봇, 고부가 의료서비스로봇, 지속가능 사회안전로봇시스템, 라이프케어 로봇
· 원천기술 : 이동지능, 작업지능, 인간-로봇교호기술, 액튜에이터, 플랫폼(S/W, H/W)

로봇 기술의 특징



가. 임베디드시스템으로서의 로봇

전통적인 메커트로닉스이 핵심 요소기술/부품기술을 중요시하던 것과는 달리 로봇공학(Robotics) 또는 로봇 기술(Rototic Technologies)에서는 완전한 종합/SI 기술이 더 중요한 의미를 갖는다. 즉, 로봇기술에서 인지, 초론, 조작은 단일 기술로서의 의미보다는 인간과 같은 완전 유기체를 목표로 상호 작용하는 것에 관심을 갖는다.

이러한 로봇기술의 특징은 현재 산업 구조의 변화(다품종 소량/다변량 생산, 마이크로/나노 제조)와 사회 구조의 변화(노령화/고립화/개인화, 네트워크화/정보화)에 맞춰 IT, BT, 메카트로닉스 등과의 업제적 결합을 모색하고 있다.

더욱이 이제까지 다양한 로봇기반 실용서비스 실현에 한계를 노출한 공급형 기술개발 형태에서 벗어나 미국과 같이 평범하지만 완성도 높은 기술로 구성된 서비스 실현의 도구로써의 로봇에 대한 산업 가치사슬의 형성이 필요하였다. 이러한 노력으로 현재 국내에서는 교육용 로봇, 사회안전로봇 및 서비스 연계 제조업용 로봇이 추진되고 있다.



나. 로봇으로서의 임베디드시스템

다양해지고 복잡해져 가는 지능형 로봇에 대한 요구 사항들과 사용 환경에 대응하기 위하여 로봇 구성 및 개발 방법에 있어서 모듈화/분산화/플랫폼화 및 사용자 친화성을 강화시켰다.

우선 기능 모듈 단위로 프로세서가 존재하고 이 프로세서들은 빠른 네트워크로 연결된 채 병렬로 자신들에게 주어진 임무를 수행한다. 로봇 네트워크로는 기존 CAN보다 100배 이상 빠른 속도와 실시간 통신으로서의 특징을 갖는 실시간 이더넷 통신으로 이더캣, 서코스, 메카트로링크 등이 사용되고 있다. 또한 개발 및 사용환경에서는 사용자 친화력을 강화시키기 위하여 소프트웨어 및 하드웨어 플랫폼의 적용과 그래픽 기반 사용자 도구가 제시되고 있다.

또한 지능형 로봇의 임무가 다양해짐에 따라 실시간 시스템으로서의 요구반응 시간이 기존 산업제조용 로봇의 수십 밀리 초이었던 것이 초정밀 시스템의 경우에는 수 나노 초, 그리고 네트워크 기반 개인 서비스 로봇의 경우에는 수 초에 이르기까지 다양해 졌다.




결언


지능형 로봇산업에서 학제간 연계 개발 및 보급 확산이 성공적으로 이루어진다면, 기존 자동차, 조선 및 IT 산업에 버금가는 새로운 신수종 산업이 예상되며, 지능형 로봇이 미래 사회에서 다양한 분야의 사람들이 쉽게 개발하고 일상생활에서 편하게 사용할 수 있는 똑똑한 생활필수품으로 활용될 수 있을 것으로 예상한다.

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